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19 February, 10:04

Explain how autonomic nerves that innervate the smooth muscle layer around bronchioles can influence the volume of air reaching a particular region of the lung

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  1. 19 February, 11:00
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    The autonomic nervous system or visceral nervous system (also called the vegetative nervous system) is the part of the nervous system responsible for functions not subject to voluntary control.

    The information converges at the level of an integrative center, the nucleus of the solitary tract, located in the central nervous system. This one sends information in the efferent ways to modify among others the dilation and retreat of the bronchi.

    The dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles makes that the passage of air in the lungs is more important (as the diameter grows). The shrinking bronchi and bronchioles that the diameter is reduced and therefore the passage of air will be less important.
  2. 19 February, 11:49
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    The Autonomic nervous system (of the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous system) is concerned with innervation of muscles concerned with involuntary control of breathing, heart rate, urination, digestion etc,

    it is under the control of the brain stem and the spinal cord. Structurally, the integration of sensory inputs from the limbic sytem for coordinated response by the autonomic system takes place in the hypothalamus.

    Smooth muscles in the walls of the bronchioles are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Thus the volume of the bronchioles is regulated by these innervation. Constriction of these smooth muscles is stimulated by parasympathetic nerves. Innervation by the latter from the brain stem through the spinal cord, leads to contaction of smooth muscles which constricts the bronchioles, reducing the diameter (bronchocontriction), and therefore the volume of airflow through through it (bronchioles.)
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