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2 February, 23:30

What are the solubility rules for ionic compounds

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Answers (1)
  1. 3 February, 00:21
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    Salts of the alkali metals are soluble. (Note: The alkali metals are in group 1.)

    e. g. If M = Li, Na or K, then MX, M2X, M3X, etc. are soluble regardless of what X is.

    2. Ammonium ( + NH4

    ) salts are soluble.

    e. g. NH4 X, (NH4

    ) 2X, (NH4

    ) 3X, etc. are soluble regardless of what X is.

    3. Nitrates NO3

    -

    are soluble.

    e. g. MNO3, M (NO3) 2, M (NO3) 3, etc. are soluble regardless of what M is.

    4. Halides i. e. chlorides (Cl-

    ), bromides (Br-

    ) and iodides (I-

    ) are soluble except for the

    halides of lead (Pb2+), mercury (Hg+

    and 2 + H 2

    g) and silver (Ag+

    ).

    e. g. If X = Cl, Br or I, then MX, MX2, MX3, etc. are soluble unless M = Pb, Hg or Ag.

    5. Sulfates (2-

    SO4

    ) are soluble except for the sulfates of calcium, strontium, barium, silver

    mercury and lead.

    e. g. M2SO4, MSO4, M2 (SO4) 3, etc. are soluble unless M is from group 2 (the alkaline

    earths) or M = Pb, Hg or Ag.

    6. Carbonates (2 - CO3

    ), phosphates (3 - PO4

    ) and sulfides (S2-

    ) are insoluble except for

    (i) the carbonates/phosphates/sulfides of the alkalis (because of Rule 1), and

    (ii) ammonium carbonate/phosphate/sulfide (because of Rule 2).

    7. Hydroxides (OH-

    ) are insoluble or slightly soluble except for the hydroxides of the

    alkalis (because of Rule 1).

    Note: The hydroxides of group 2 (the alkaline earth metals) are slightly soluble. Virtually

    all other hydroxides are insoluble.
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