2 February, 23:30
What are the solubility rules for ionic compounds
3 February, 00:21
Salts of the alkali metals are soluble. (Note: The alkali metals are in group 1.)
e. g. If M = Li, Na or K, then MX, M2X, M3X, etc. are soluble regardless of what X is.
2. Ammonium ( + NH4
) salts are soluble.
e. g. NH4 X, (NH4
) 2X, (NH4
) 3X, etc. are soluble regardless of what X is.
3. Nitrates NO3
e. g. MNO3, M (NO3) 2, M (NO3) 3, etc. are soluble regardless of what M is.
4. Halides i. e. chlorides (Cl-
), bromides (Br-
) and iodides (I-
) are soluble except for the
halides of lead (Pb2+), mercury (Hg+
and 2 + H 2
g) and silver (Ag+
e. g. If X = Cl, Br or I, then MX, MX2, MX3, etc. are soluble unless M = Pb, Hg or Ag.
5. Sulfates (2-
) are soluble except for the sulfates of calcium, strontium, barium, silver
mercury and lead.
e. g. M2SO4, MSO4, M2 (SO4) 3, etc. are soluble unless M is from group 2 (the alkaline
earths) or M = Pb, Hg or Ag.
6. Carbonates (2 - CO3
), phosphates (3 - PO4
) and sulfides (S2-
) are insoluble except for
(i) the carbonates/phosphates/sulfides of the alkalis (because of Rule 1), and
(ii) ammonium carbonate/phosphate/sulfide (because of Rule 2).
7. Hydroxides (OH-
) are insoluble or slightly soluble except for the hydroxides of the
alkalis (because of Rule 1).
Note: The hydroxides of group 2 (the alkaline earth metals) are slightly soluble. Virtually
all other hydroxides are insoluble.
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